Status of monument -> National monument
Pursuant to Article V para. 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Article 39 para. 1 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, at a session held from 4 to 11 September 2006 the Commission adopted a
D E C I S I O N
The architectural ensemble of the Gazi Husrev-beg bezistan with shops in Sarajevo is hereby designated as a National Monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the National Monument).
The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 1183 (new survey), corresponding to c.p. nos. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and 13, mahala VIII, and c.p. nos. 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 59, 60 and 61, mahala IX, title deed no. 43,8, Municipality Stari Grad, Sarajevo, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The provisions relating to protection measures set forth by the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of the Federation of BiH nos. 2/02, 27/02 and 6/04) shall apply to the National Monument.
The Government of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the Government of the Federation) shall be responsible for ensuring and providing the legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary to protect, conserve and display the National Monument.
The Commission to Preserve National Monuments (hereinafter: the Commission) shall determine the technical requirements and secure the funds for preparing and setting up signboards with the basic data on the monument and the Decision to proclaim the property a National Monument.
To ensure the on-going protection of the National Monument the following protection measures are hereby stipulated, which shall apply to the area defined in Clause 1 para. 2 of this Decision:
- all works are prohibited other than conservation and restoration works, including those designed to display the monument, with the approval of the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning and under the expert supervision of the heritage protection authority of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (hereinafter: the heritage protection authority);
- the monument may be used for cultural, educational and commercial purposes (the sale of textiles, jewellery and spices) on condition that such uses are not detrimental to its original appearance.
All executive and area development planning acts not in accordance with the provisions of this Decision are hereby revoked.
Everyone, and in particular the competent authorities of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Canton, and urban and municipal authorities, shall refrain from any action that might damage the National Monument or jeopardize the preservation thereof.
The Government of the Federation, the Federal Ministry responsible for regional planning, the Federation heritage protection authority, and the Municipal Authorities in charge of urban planning and land registry affairs, shall be notified of this Decision in order to carry out the measures stipulated in Articles II to VI of this Decision, and the Authorized Municipal Court shall be notified for the purposes of registration in the Land Register.
The elucidation and accompanying documentation form an integral part of this Decision, which may be viewed by interested parties on the premises or by accessing the website of the Commission (http://www.aneks8komisija.com.ba)
Pursuant to Art. V para 4 Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, decisions of the Commission are final.
This Decision shall enter into force on the date of its adoption and shall be published in the Official Gazette of BiH.
This Decision has been adopted by the following members of the Commission: Zeynep Ahunbay, Amra Hadžimuhamedović, Dubravko Lovrenović, Ljiljana Ševo and Tina Wik.
5 September 2006
Chair of the Commission
E l u c i d a t i o n
I – INTRODUCTION
Pursuant to Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Law on the Implementation of the Decisions of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments, established pursuant to Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, a “National Monument” is an item of public property proclaimed by the Commission to Preserve National Monuments to be a National Monument pursuant to Articles V and VI of Annex 8 of the General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina and property entered on the Provisional List of National Monuments of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Official Gazette of BiH no. 33/02) until the Commission reaches a final decision on its status, as to which there is no time limit and regardless of whether a petition for the property in question has been submitted or not.
The historic monument forms part of the Townscape of Sarajevo which is on the Provisional List of National Monuments under serial no. 546, and pursuant to this the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
Pursuant to the provisions of the law, the Commission proceeded to carry out the procedure for reaching a final decision to designate the Property as a National Monument, pursuant to Article V para. 4 of Annex 8 and Article 35 of the Rules of Procedure of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments.
II – PROCEDURE PRIOR TO DECISION
In the procedure preceding the adoption of a final decision to proclaim the property a national monument, the following documentation was inspected:
- Data on the current condition and use of the property, including a description and photographs, data of war damage, data on restoration or other works on the property, etc.
- An inspection of the current condition of the property
- Copy of the cadastral plan
- Historical, architectural and other documentary material on the property, as set out in the bibliography forming part of this Decision.
The findings based on the review of the above documentation and the condition of the site are as follows:
1. Details of the property
The properties belonging to the Gazi Husrev-beg vakuf (deed of perpetual endowment) are located in the central area of Baščaršija, facing Sarači street. The Gazi Husrev-beg bezistan stands about 50 m to the west of the Bey's mosque and Clock Tower, running north-south along Gazi Husrev-beg street. To the north, the plot is bounded by Ferhadija street (formerly Vaso Miskin street), and to the south by Branilaca grada street (formerly JNA street).
The National Monument is located on a site designated as cadastral plot no. 1183 (new survey), corresponding to c.p. nos. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and13, mahala VIII, and c.p. nos. 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 59, 60 and 61, mahala IX, title deed no. 43,8 (old survey), Municipality Stari Grad, Sarajevo, Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Historical information (1)
Like all oriental-type cities, Sarajevo was divided into:
- the area composed of residential quarters or mahalas, and
- the commercial area or čaršija.
The residential area of the city developed on the surrounding slopes, spreading outwards from the centre towards the periphery. When building the residential quarters, efforts were made to ensure that they enjoyed as much greenery and light as possible.
The čaršija developed rapidly, reaching its culmination in the second half of the 16th century. There were eighty different crafts in the čaršija, organized into powerful guilds known as esnaf. These crafts were also organized topographically by type of craft or esnaf, with only one or a number of allied crafts in any given street, to which the craft(s) in question gave their name. Kazandžiluk, Kujundžiluk, Kazazi, Franačka čaršija, Halači, Mudželiti... there were 45 such streets in all composing the Sarajevo čaršija. The articles produced by Sarajevo's artisans, famed far and wide, not only met the needs of the people of Sarajevo themselveds but were also exported to other regions. As a result, a range of commercial properties were built in the Sarajevo čaršija, most prominent among them the bezistans (covered markets, suqs), followed by hans (hostels) and caravanserais, and numerous shops, magazines and dairas (a daira was a group of magazines around a central courtyard, all under a single roof and with a single entrance to the courtyard).
The size and importance of a town or city depended on the number of such buildings it contained. Bezistans were built only in larger towns and cities, usually only one per city, though there would be a larger number of arastas(2). Istanbul had three bezistans, and Skoplje, Veles and Belgrade one each. Seven bezistans and arastas were built in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Sarajevo had two bezistans and one arasta, Banja Luka one bezistan and one arasta, and Travnik two arastas. These buildings bore the names of their founders, or were named after the type of fabric mainly sold in them or after the region from which the fabric came. Hence one of Istanbul's bezistans was known as Sandal-bedesten, and one in Sarajevo is still called Brusa-bezisten. The former took its name from the fabric known as sandal, with woven silk stripes (der Streifen), while the Sarajevo bezistan was named after a cotton fabric.
All three of Sarajevo’s bezistans were built between 1463 and 1551; Banja Luka’s was built after 1587 but before 1659; and those of Travnik were built in the 1750s. ...” (3)
Two of Sarajevo's three bezistans have survived. The first bezistan in Sarajevo was built in the first half of the 16th century by Mehmed-beg, son of Isabeg Ishaković. It was located beside Kolobara han, on Trgovke(4), north of the Brusa bezistan. It was badly damaged in 1697 during the campaign by Eugene of Savoy(5), and was demolished in 1842. There is no reliable information concerning its appearance(6).
The Brusa bezistan was built in 1551. Its founder was Rustem Pasha(7), a native of Sarajevo or its environs(8). The Brusa bezistan was without doubt the most significant edifice he endowed in his native region(9).
The Gazi Husrev-beg bezistan is also known as the Old bezistan and the Large bezistan. It was built to the east of the Tašlihan(10). The two buildings were interconnected, enabling traders in the bezistan to make direct contat with the merchants from Venice and Dubrovnik who were based in the Tašlihan.
Not one of Gazi Husrev-beg’s three vakufnamas (deeds of endowment) provides any information on the bezistan and Tašlihan. An undated request from the merchants and entire population of Sarajevo to Dubrovnik’s prince and aristocracy, found in the archives of Dubrovnik (ACTA TURCARUM, series LXXV no. 3217), appeals to the prince to send thirty master-builders skilled in building walls, vaultgs and domes to Sarajevo. The request states that one Mahmud was sent with a letter from the Dubrovnik friends of a certain Ulama-pasha and Muradbeg, sanjak of Požega, with whom the master-builders requested should return. The builders were needed primarily to complete the Husrev-beg caravanserai. As the letter notes, the builders will receive wages, gifts and travel costs from the mutevelli and supervisor. All of Sarajevo’s inhabitants will be on hand to help the builders. The appeal points out that everyone in Sarajevo, including Dubrovnik’s merchants, need a fireproof building, given the frequency with which considerable damage is caused by fires. The building is to be completed that same year. The appeal was written during the time of Bosnia’s sanjak-bey Ulama pasha, who came to Bosnia after 17 June 1541 (the date of Husrev-beg’s death), remaining there until 1543. Since the appeal refers to Murad-beg as sanjak of Požega, which came into being in 1542, the appeal must have been written in 1542 or 1543, when works were in hand on the completion of the caravanserai. There is no reference to the bezistan in the appeal, but this is of no concern, since there is no doubt that both buildings were erected at the same time (Kreševljaković, p. 236.).
These facts are grounds for stating that the building was erected at the same time as the Tašlihan, between 1537 and 1557. Together with the han, it was the centre of Sarajevo trade, in particular that of imported textiles. The building was damaged by fire on several occasions, but never completely destroyed. The worst fires were in 1697, 1831 and 1879. The last of these badly damaged the Tašlihan, leaving it completely unusable. “The fire would melt the lead on the roof or smoke would leave the plaster covered in soot, but this would be repaired at once.” (Kreševljaković, p. 236).
Various silk and cotton textile goods were sold in the bezistan. The traders were all either Muslims or Jews. After 1878, harmonicas, various haberdashery articles and jewellery were sold in it (Kreševljaković, p. 236).
The earliest reference to Jews in the bezistan dates from 1771, when a shop belonging to a Jew was burgled(11).
It is worth noting that all the outside shops of this building belonged to Kujundžiluk, the goldsmiths’ street. These shops were vaulted in the same way, meaning that they were built at the same time.
The bezistan was used for its original purpose until 1879. Certain information indicates that it continued to be used for trading until the outbreak of World War I, the start of which also prevented its being entirely demolished – in 1913 much of it had been pulled down because the vakuf authority had decided to erect a large building on the site of the demolished Tašlihan, and by the same token of the bezistan(12).
Finally, in early 1968, work began on the restoration of the Gazi Husrev-beg bezistan. The work was carried out to a working design by architects Džemal Čelić and E. Jahić and funded by the Housing Corporation of Sarajevo.
The buiilding was damaged during the 1992-1995 war in Bosnia and Herzegovina. All the damage was made good after the war ended.
2. Description of the property
There are certain differences between the commercial buildings dating from the Ottoman period. Bezistans (bezisten is a compound word, from the Arabic bezz and the Persian suffix (i)stan, meaning a place where bez or fabric is sold. In our part of the world they are known as bezisten or bezistan, in Istanbul as bedesten, and in Konya as bezazija) are very solidly built structures with stone walls and domed or barrel-vaulted roofs. They are usually rectangular or square in ground plan, with walls a metre or more thick.
Arastas(13)(areste – çarşi, arastak – covered street) are longitudinal, barrel-vaulted buildings with shops in rows along the main walkway. Arastas usually interconnect with a han or caravanserai built close by. The term arasta can be defined as a longitudinal street(14) with shops on both sides; the street itself may be open to the skies or roofed over (G. Ozdes, Turk Carsilari, Istanbul 1953, p.7; C.E.Arseven, Sanat Ansiklopedisi, vol.1. p.95). In some arastas, both manufacturers and sellers were located along the main street(15).
The Gazi Husrev-begov bezistan belongs to the type of arasta that is combined with another commercial facility (Tašlihan)(16). In ground plan it forms an elongated rectangle, measuring 109 x 19.40 m, lying north-south. The walls are of varying thickness from 70 to 12 cm. The entire length of the building is roofed with a tufa barrel vault resting on 90 cm thick walls and further reinforced by buttresses. The shops inside the bezistan are also barrel-vaulted, each one separately. The south end of the bezistan, measuring 6.50 x 19.20 m, is roofed with four small domes with a radius of about 4 metres. There are goldsmiths' shops to the east of the building. The building consists of entrance portals with doors, a central passageway or street, and shops.
There are in all five entrances to the bezistan, each with iron doors: one each at the north and south ends (from Ferhadija and Branilaca grada streets respectively), two on the east side in Gazi Husrev-beg street, and one, now walled up, on the west side, which formerly led to the Tašlihan.
The north portal is the main entrance to the bezistan. It is 8.20 m wide overall, including the side stone walls, which are 70 cm thick. At a height of about 3.20 m the portal gradually increases in width by about 20 cm to the east and west. In addition to its imposing height, dominating the surrounding area (the same height as that of the bezistan itself), the portal is further accentuated by a pointed arch and stone cornice with a height of 25 cm. The entire portal is of tufa apart from the window areas and a narrow band at roughly mid height, which is composed of four courses of thin bricks. The lower part of the door is 2.50 m wide, with stone door jambs and a segmental arched lintel, above which is a simply moulded horizontal stone cornice. There is a rectangular stone window with iron bars in the axis of the north portal. The entire composition is completed by a blind fanlight terminating in a pointed arch.
East portal 1 is similar to the north portal, except that it is only 5 metres wide, with side walls 50 cm thick. There is no increase in width as there is on the north portal. The lower part of the door is 2 m wide, with stone door jambs and a segmental arch lintel. The lintels are each composed of two finely dressed stone blocks, while the arch has a total of nine blocks, also finely dressed. Above the arch are three rectangular stone recesses, the purpose of which is not known. There is a rectangular stone window with iron bars in the axis of the portal. The entire composition is completed by a blind fanlight terminating in a pointed arch. The front of the portal is entirely of tufa. The sides are of limestone to a height of about 6 metres, above which are five courses of tufa.
East portal 2 is similar to portal 1, with a width of 5 metres and side walls 50 cm thick. The lower part of the door is 2 m wide, with stone door jambs and a segmental arch lintel. The lintels are each composed of two finely dressed stone blocks, while the arch has a total of nine blocks, also finely dressed. The difference between portals 1 and 2 lies in the triangular transitional stones to each side and in the lintel, which is rather more flattened in the case of portal 1. There is a rectangular stone window with iron bars in the axis of the portal. The entire composition is completed by a blind fanlight terminating in a pointed arch. The front of portal 2 is entirely of tufa.
The south end of the bezistan has a portico measuring 19 x 4 metres, consisting of four rectangular stone pillars measuring 0.80 x 1.30 m, linked by round arches. The end pillars are linked to the bezistan walls by round stone arches below which is the entrance to the portico (east-west). The side pillars are 4 metres apart and those in the central part are 3.50 m apart. The barrel vault of the portico, which runs east-west, rests on this structure and that of the walls of the bezistan. The south entrance to the bezistan is inside this portico. The entrance doors are of the same size as those of the north portal. The door jambs are of stone. The lintel is in the shape of a segmental arch with a total of nine stones. There are no other decorative elements.
The central passageway or street is 109 m long and an average of 3 m wide. It is now paved with local hreša stone, but was originally cobbled. Above the shops but below the vault were several lunettes through which light entered the building.
The shops are separated by stone walls 70 to 80 cm thick. There was a total of 52 shops in the bezistan, all with wooden floors, measuring approx. 3.50 x 4.50 m. They were originally about half a metre above the level of the passageway, to make it easier to maintain and clean the central street. The shops did not have wooden ćefenak shutters, but were closed with canvas. There was a small room in the middle of the building, at a height of about 3.5 m, where the night watchman sat (file card of the Institute for the Protection of Monuments of BiH).
The walls of the bezistan are of quarry limestone with the outer face dressed. The wall faces are composed of regular courses approx. 0.15 to 0.20 m thick, with infill between. The reconstructed parts of the building are of thin brick with cement mortar bonding, so as to underline the fact that they constitute a reconstruction of the missing parts of the building. This can be seen on the east side on the built-on goldsmiths' shops in Gazi Husrev-beg street.
As can be seen in the remains of the tašlihan and the link between it and the bezistan, the foundations are of quarry stone mixed with a large quantity of lime mortar and coarse sand. The widened parts of foundation walls are of varying thickness, and a layer of terra rossa with river pebbles was also found.
The roof of the entire building is clad with sheet copper.
3. Legal status to date
Pursuant to Ruling no. 950/51 dated 12 November 1950, issued by the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments and Natural Rarities of Sarajevo, the Gazi Husrev-beg bezistan was placed under state protection under registration no. 5.
By Ruling no. 02-604-3 dated 18 April 1962, the property was entered in the Register of immovable cultural properties. The ruling came into force on 18 October 1962.
The 1980 Regional Plan for BiH listed the Gazi Husrev-beg bezistan in Sarajevo as a Category I monument. It is located within the townscape of Sarajevo, which the same document listed as a Category 0 monument.
4. Research and conservation and restoration works
1832 – following the fire that swept through Baščaršija, in which the Tašlihan was burned down, the roof of the building was re-clad with new sheet metal.
Since the Gazi Husrev-beg bezistan was in a derelict condition, and even in ruins, it was seriously proposed to demolish the remains of the bezistan entirely and to build a large modern palace on the site. The vakuf authority invited entries for a design for the entire area from the Europa Hotel and Ferhadija street. Designs were submitted, but the outbreak of World War II caused the authority to give up the idea of implementing the project. Part of the building (the south side) was pulled down in 1913;
1957 – doors were installed on the property;
1969 – conservation and restoration works, and reconstruction of part of the property (details of the type and extent of the works not available);
1970 – conservation and restoration works, and reconstruction of part of the property;
1971 – completion of conservation and restoration works.
A design for the interior of the Gazi Husrev-beg bezistan was drawn up in 1960 by the design company Turist projekt Sarajevo. The designers were Jahić Enver, Čelić Džemal and authorized designer Jurić Vinko. The investor was NOO Stari Grad Sarajevo. The design programme was drawn up in 1959, and provided for the interior to be divided into three sections:
- lower part of the bezistan, as far as the Europa Hotel garden, to be used as an ašćinica (eating house) and beer cellar. This part was also to be designed to be used as a coffee house in the evenings;
- upper part of the bezistan up to V. Miskin (Ferhadija) street, designed for “commission shops” selling antiques;
- the shops accessible from Gazi Husrev-beg street, to be used for the production and sale of arts and crafts articles – clocksmiths, goldsmiths etc.
Care was to be taken in determining the use of this space to ensure that all the shops of this type already in that part of the building should be accommodated.
The design also provided for the bezistan to be centrally heated, and for the inside area designed for the ašćinica to be ventilated.
Conservation and restoration works, and the reconstruction of the bezistan, were carried out from 1969 to 1971.
All the works were completed in 1971. Once this stage of the works was complete, the Gazi Husrev-beg bezistan had regained its main architectural features – the appearance of an arasta with typical interior layout and outside shops along the east side. The gradual transition from the ground floor shops to the central area of the building is one of the mainfeatures of the layout of the Sarajevo čaršija.
In 1998 works on the interior of the building were carried out to adapt the shops to modern trading condition, separating the various units with prefab systems, and installing electric lighting.
5. Current condition of the property
The bezistan is in good structural condition.
6. Specific risks:
III – CONCLUSION
Applying the Criteria for the adoption of a decision on proclaiming an item of property a national monument (Official Gazette of BiH nos. 33/02 and 15/03), the Commission has enacted the Decision cited above.
The Decision was based on the following criteria:
A. Time frame
B. Historical value
C. Artistic and aesthetic value
C.i. quality of workmanship
C.ii. quality of materials
C.v. value of details
C.vi. value of construction
D. Clarity (documentary, scientific and educational value)
D. iv. evidence of a particular type, style or regional manner
D.v. evidence of a typical way of life at a specific period
E. Symbolic value
E.iii. traditional value
E.v. significance for the identity of a group of people
F. Townscape/ Landscape value
F.i. Relation to other elements of the site
F.ii. meaning in the townscape
F.iii. the building or group of buildings is part of a group or site
H. Rarity and representativity
H.i. unique or rare example of a certain type or style
H.ii. outstanding work of art or architecture
The following documents form an integral part of this Decision:
- Copy of cadastral plan
- Copy of land register entry and proof of title;
- Archival documentation, photographs of the Commission to Preserve National Monuments of BiH, July-August 2006, taken by Mirzah Fočo, Sony Cybershoot H2 digital
o Site plan
o Ground plan - Truhelka
o Outline concept for the bezistan, Jahić, Čelić, Sarajevo, 1960
§ Ground plan of the property, scale 1:100
§ Ground plan of the property, scale 1:100
§ Perspective drawings
During the procedure to designate the monument as a national monument of Bosnia and Herzegovina the following works were consulted:
1912. Truhelka Ćiro, Gazi Husrev-beg – njegov život i njegovo doba (Gazi Husrev-beg – his life and times), Jnl of the National Museum XXIV, 1,2 , 1912.
1932. Spomenica Gazi Husrev-begove četiristogodišnjice (Commemorative volume, quadricentenary of Gazi Husrev-beg
1938. Kreševljaković, Hamdija: Veliki vezir Rustem paša (Grand Vizier Rustem pasha), Naroda Uzdanica, calendar for 1939, Sarajevo, 1938, 77-94
1952. Šabanović, H., Dvije najstarije vakufname u Bosni (The two oldest vakufnamas in Bosnia), Prilozi za orijentalnu filologiju (Contributions to oriental philology), II, 1951, Sarajevo 1952.
1964. Šabanović, Hazim, Krajište Isa – bega Ishakovića, Zbirni katastarski popis iz 1455. godine.(Land of Isa-beg Ishaković, Collective Cadastral Census for 1455) Sarajevo, 1964.
1970. G. Tankut, 'Osmanli Kentinde Ticari Fonksiyonlarin Mekansal Dagilimi', VII. Türk Tarih Kongresi, vol. II, Ankara, 25-29 September, 1970, p. 777. )
1973. Bejtić, Alija, Ulice i trgovi starog Sarajeva (Streets and squares of old Sarajevo), Sarajevo 1973.
1976. S.Aktüre,T. Şenyapili, 'SafranboludaMekansal Yapinin Gösterdigi Nitelikler ve Koruma Önerilerinin Düşündürdükleri',O.D.T.Ü. Mimarlik Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. 2, no. 1, Spring 1976,p.64.)
1981. Ayverdi, Ekrem Hakki, Avrupa'da Osmanli mimari eserleri, Yugoslavya, Istanbul 1981
1988. 450 godina Gazi Husrev-begove Medrese u Sarajevu (450th anniversary of the Gazi Husrev-beg Medresa in Sarajevo)
1991. Kreševljaković, Hamdija, Izabrana djela II – Sahat-kule u Bosni i Hercegovini, (Selected Works II – Clock Towers in BiH) Veselin Masleša, Sarajevo, 1991, pp. 493-506.
1997. Zlatar, Behija, Zlatni period Sarajeva, (Sarajevo's Golden Age) Contributions to History, Sarajevo, 1997.
1999. Aksulu, Işik, 'The Otoman Arasta: Definition, Classification and Conservation Problems', EJOS, IV (2001) (= M. Kiel, N. Landman & H. Theunisen (eds.), Proceedings of the 11th International Congress of Turkish Art, Utrecht - The Netherlands, August 23-28, 1999), No. 54, 1-17.
2000. GHM u Sarajevu, 450 generacija (Gazi Husrev-beg Medresa in Sarajevo, 440 generations), various authors
2005. Mehmedović, Ahmed, Gazi Husrev-beg i njegove zadužbine (Gazi Husrev-beg and his legacies), Sarajevo 2005.
Documentation of the Gazi Husrev-beg vakuf in Sarajevo:
- Printed matter – brochure of the Gazi Husrev-beg vakuf
Documentation of the Cantonal Institute for the Protection of Monuments Sarajevo
(1) More extensive historical information is provided in the Decisions designating the historic monument of the Clock Tower and the architectural ensemble of the Brusa bezistan in Sarajevo as national monuments of BiH.
(2) Arasta (areste – çarşi, arastak – covered street)
(3) Kreševljaković, Hamdija: Naši bezistani, Naše starine II, Sarajevo, 1954., 233
(4) The toponym is also known by the name of Pazarbule. The trgovke (from trg, market) survived until 1949. (Kreševljaković, Hamdija: Naši bezistani, Naše starine II, Annual of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments of NR Bosnia and Herzegovina, Sarajevo, 1954, 234)
(5) Eugene of Savoy (16 October 1663 – 24 April 1736) was a French aristocrat. After falling out of favour and being held up to ridicule by King Louis XIV, he served Austria. After the Poles chose Friedrich Augustus as their king, Leopold I appointed him as commander in chief of the Austrian army in 1697. He defeated the Turkish army at Senta on 11 September 1697, when the commander of the Turkish army, Grand Vizier Mehmed Elmas Pasha, was killed. In 1698, as a reward for this victory, he received from Leopold I the southern part of Baranja, with its capital in present-day Bilje, where he built a castle in 1707. That same year he launched a campaign against Bosnia, setting off from Osijek on 6 October 1697 with 6,000 troops and crossing the Sava at Brod. He took Doboj and Maglaj on 16 and 17 October 1697 without resistance, and moved rapidly on to Sarajevo, occupying the city and looting and torching it. With winter approaching, he withdrew on 25 October 1697, taking many Christians with him.
In 1716 he occupied Timişoara, and then defended the Petrovaradin fortress with an army of 70,000 men from attacks by the Turkish army commanded by Damad Ali Pasha. In 1717 he conquered Belgrade.
(6) During the restoration of Trgovke, while the foundations of the shop were being dug, the old foundations of a larger building were discovered, but they were not sufficiently well preserved for the rectangular shape of the bezistan to be identified, and the remaining structures of that building were destroyed when Trgovke was built. It was therefore deduced that the first bezistan had no vaults or domes, since a structure of that kind would certainly have required stronger foundations, the remains of which would indubitably have survived to the time when Trgovke was being built. Presumably, therefore, the Mehmed-beg bezistan would have had a light-weight wooden roof structure.
(7) Grand Vizier Rustem Pasha Opuković was a contemporary of Gazi Husrev-beg. He was born in the Sarajevo region, and taken as a child to Istanbul, where he made rapid progress. He married the daughter of Sultan Suleyman II, Mihrima, and became the favourite of his mother-in-law Hurem Sultana – Roxelana. By 1544 he was already Grand Vizier, and is certainly one of the prominent figures from Bosnia to hold that post in the 16th century, at the height of the Turkish Empire’s glory. He was again appointed Grand Vizier in 1555, holding the post until his death in 1561. He left immense wealth. He built a mosque in the old heart of Istanbul, the Mihrimah (built by the greatest Ottoman architect, Mimar Sinan, in 1561, and famous for its outstanding faience decoration of the interior), a medresa, a caravanserai, a hammam and a library. Mimar Sinan alone, the most famous Ottoman architect, built 19 edifices to Rustem Pasha’s orders. In his native Sarajevo he built the Brusa bezistan, the bridge over the Željeznica in Ilidža and a han beside the bridge. The rental income from the han and bezistan was used to maintain the bridge. Rustem Pasha’s brother Mehmed beg, known as Karađoz beg, built several edifices in Mostar, of which his mosque is the best known. Another brother of Rustem Pasha’s built a mosque in Sarajevo, where his sister also lived.
(8) Kreševljaković, Hamdija: Veliki vezir Rustem paša (Grand Vizier Rustem Pasha), Naroda Uzdanica, calendar for 1939, Sarajevo, 1938, 77-94
(9) As soon as the Brusa bezistan was completed in 1551, the sale of expensive textile products began there: Vizier Rustem Pasha was not only a statesman but was also involved in the silk industry in Brusa. Indeed, the building acquired its name of Brusa bezistan from the silk from Brusa that was sold there.
(10) The ground plan of the Tašlihan was an irregular rectangle, and its layout was typical of all two-storey caravanserais. Unlike other hans, where the basic use of the courtyard was as a loading and unloading bay for goods, the courtyard of Tašlihan contained a row of shops, giving it the trappings of a mercantile han. The shops in the southern part of the area dated from the later stages of its construction. A sebilj (kiosk-style fountain) with several spigots was built in the courtyard, with above it a mosque on piers (Ć. Truhelka, 1912. 188). Close to the main entrance to the han, in the courtyard, were two stone stairways leading to the rooms on the first floor. These rooms were roofed with small domes, while the corridors were barrel-vaulted. Sheet lead was used to clad the roof. The Tašlihan je burned down for the first time 1697, and again in 1831, when stabling was built onto the extreme northern part, which still remains to be excavated. It was completely destroyed by fire in 1879.
(11) Goods and cash to the value of 2000 groschen were stolen. Suspicion fell upon one Mustafa Tarakčić, who had a coffee shop in the bezistan, as a result of which his premises were closed down (Muderizović, Kronika M.M. Bašeskije, p. 42). This is the one and only reference to a coffee shop in Sarajevo’s bezistans.
(12) After World War I it was largely in ruins, and between the wars it was seriously proposed to demolish the remains of the bezistan entirely and to build a large modern palace on the site. The vakuf authority invited entries for a design for the entire area from the Europa Hotel and Ferhadija street. Designs were submitted, but the outbreak of World War II caused the authority to give up the idea of implementing the project.
(13) Classification of Arastas
Arastas can be studied in two ways: 1) as guilds markets and 2) as arasta buildings. In this paper arasta buildings are to be the main subject while guilds markets are only briefly mentioned.
The group which is defined under this heading, is the market type which consists of shops dealing with the same trade/products or artisan shops which are lined on both sides of the street. Each guild is located in its own street and al of them have their own mosque and han, presenting a unity. Their streets are uncovered and only shaded by eaves or canopies. This sort of arastas is constructed out of timber and/or bricks. Therefore most of them could not endure. The ones which were built in accordance to Ebniye codes, building codes established in 1849, are constructed in masonry, kâgir, and those specimens stil exist. An early example of this type of arasta is the arasta of Safranbolu which is also named as kavaflar arasta and consists of more than 50 small stals.( S.Aktüre,T. Şenyapili, 'SafranboludaMekansal Yapinin Gösterdigi Nitelikler ve Koruma Önerilerinin Düşündürdükleri',O.D.T.Ü. Mimarlik Fakültesi Dergisi, vol. 2, no. 1, Spring 1976,p.64.)
The first arasta buildings emerged in the late 15th century. If the building in Alanya can be identified as an arasta, it wil be the earliest specimen of its kind. In this type the çarşi street has been modified and constructed as a building. Some of them were built together with diferent units/buildings with diferent functions, or exist in a building complex with diferent construction types, layouts and locations. These complexes may be in the cities or on the trade routs (menzil). There are also some buildings which are composed of shops lined opposite each other and can stil be clasified as arastas. In accordance with these explanations arasta buildings are clasified in two groups: - The arasta located in a commercial center and - The arasta as part of a complex or küliye. Arastas in a commercial center of a city are either built together with other units of the commercial center or in their vicinity. Although this type has the features of an arasta they are known as bedestens. So two groups appear under this heading: 1a) the arasta combined with other units, and 1b) the arasta type of building, i.e. arasta as free-standing buildings.
(14) The street is an important element of the Ottoman city. Streets of a town district have a protective quality and are completely integrated with living quarters. The street has been a leit-motif of the spatial distribution of commercial activities; they were constructed either directly as in the guilds market or in a kind of concept as seen in bedestens or covered markets.(G. Tankut, 'Osmanli Kentinde Ticari Fonksiyonlarin Mekansal Dagilimi', VII. Türk Tarih Kongresi, vol. II, Ankara, 25-29 September, 1970, p. 777. )
(15) If we define the arasta as a market street in the form of a building, then the term street becomes conceptual because it has turned into a construction. If we look at this matter from this point of view we can not specify a clear difference between arasta, bedesten and covered markets. Therefore the architectural characteristics become important, but some examples also demonstrate quite similar architectural features. In this case the only defining criteria are their functions. Commercial buildings are built for specific purposes and have different functions. So the reason for the emergence of arastas can be explained by identifying their services and products. It can be said that arasta buildings emerged in cities which specialized in contributing to the state-wide economy with specific goods of which their district produced a surplus. In short, the function formed the building.
(16) Çukurhan and arasta in Berge. The arasta is partly in ruins and only eight shops are currently in use, although there were originally 40. The street is roofed with a barrel vault.